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Certification

Up-to-date design process of avionics/Supporting processes/Certification/

Certification process goal is to prove the aircraft (AC) and its systems compliance to the airworthiness regulation requirements (certification basis).

Aircraft certification basis is formed based on aviation rules part-25 (MAK AP-25) and special requirements specifications. Special requirements specifications are captured with consideration for other countries airworthiness regulation requirements (EASA CS-25, FAA Part 25 and others) which requirements are absent in AP-21 and also taking into account foreign standards that set functional requirements and system/item safety requirements and set airworthiness higher level. On-board equipment (OBE) certification basis is an incorporation of AC certification basis requirements on systems and items.

Hereafter you can see AC systems/items certification process participants list:
  1. AC developer/OBE integrator.

  2. OBE systems/components supplier:

    • IMA SW and HW suppliers (developers) — IMA platform, functional IMA SW, hardware modules, IMA core SW;

    • certain systems, sensors suppliers (developers) that are not included into the IMA.

  3. AC certification authority (AR IAC).

  4. Certified by AR IAC Certification centers.

  5. Independent experts of other aviation industry scientific centers or companies that produce/repair aircraft and also aircraft operators.
Open architecture OBE certification actions shall include:
  • AC on-board electronic equipment qualification (before installation on AC);

  • equipment certification as a pat of AC with the goal to get type certificate in AR IAC/EASA. >>>
Fig. 3.13. Component qualification process of federative architecture.
Fig. 3.13. Component qualification process of federative architecture.
>>>  AC and its systems certification in most cases is carried out by accomplishment of system certification plans. At his stage planning and coordination are very important as for liaison between the applicant and the certification center and for reaching an agreement on validation methods on AC and its systems compliance to the airworthiness requirements.

One of the features of highly-integrated systems is the necessity of design assurance methods implementation as one system certification evidence securing means.

Compliance definition means on each OBE system are set by the component category and shall be mentioned in corresponding system certification plan.

Component qualification with traditional (federative) architecture is shown at the fig. 3.13. Component SW certification on KT-178B requirements compliance KT-178B is fulfilled as a part of component qualification tests. Component complex HW elements qualification is held in compliance with KT-254 requirements.

Component SW and complex HW elements certification results are put into Component qualification tests document.

For the components with IMA structure there is a bottom-up qualification approach (for modules/application) and IMA system qualification in general as it is set in AR IAC P-297. >>>
>>>  Bottom-up IMA system qualification (IMA platform with functional SW) is held by the following interrelated processes:
  • HW replaceable units qualification (IMA platform);

  • applications qualification (functional SW);

  • IMA systems qualification before installation on the aircraft;

  • IMA system integration and certification as a part of the AC.
Automating tools used for SW, complex HW elements design and verification shall be qualified in accordance with KT-178B (12.2 Tools Qualification) and KT-254 (11.4 Tools Assessment and Qualification).

AC developer produces evidentiary documentation list that shall be delivered to the AR IAC, defines the order of its formalization and provides this order to the Supplier to ensure proper certification activity organization. AC developer also provides to the equipment Supplier (components Supplier) the necessary source data required for evidentiary documentation preparation (AAD, ICD, FHA and others).

AC developer develops benches and arranges certification works on AC systems and equipment as a part of OBE functional goals development. Qualification tests shall prove the proper functioning of each OBE component in environment of the external factors impact. These factors are defined in compliance with Qualification basis for the certain component.

Qualification works goals are the following:
  • component type design definition and compliance of this component to the Qualification basis requirements definition;

  • operation limits definition in the compliance boundaries;

  • component implementation at the AC capabilities and conditions definition. >>>
>>>  At the OBE bench (Integration bench) equipment qualification is provided before ground and flight tests certification. The list if tests:
  • component acceptance test;

  • component/SW functioning self-check;

  • IMA functional applications self-check (IMA SW);

  • OBE bench tests on functional paths.
External factors (EFA on type: vibration, stroke, working temperature, power supply amount and others) impact on the component assessment on AC zones is held at the certification tests at the equipment installation sites taking into account the AC design, future operational conditions and of course KT-160 qualification requirements. After these tests the AC Developer will produce the document called EFA impact in OBE in the installation sites and associated document with schemes of aircraft zones regarding different EFA figures.

Flight and ground tests goal in addition to the bench qualification and development tests is to demonstrate the proper functioning of certain components and OBE systems installed at the aircraft.

Certification on-board equipment flight tests are held by Aircraft developer with support of equipment suppliers (components suppliers). Certification data is used as evidence that the system satisfies the airworthiness requirement. Certification authority defines data adequacy for standards compliance. The applicant shall prepare certification summary. This summary shall include the description of system and certification plan compliance process. Certification summary shall include certification plans stages implementation. All deviations from the agreed plan shall be shown and explained. Also the summary shall include:
  • Conclusions on the airworthiness compliance.

  • Short description of unclosed Problem Reports that may influence functionality and safety.
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